The Kremlin was built in stone. In 17 century Kazan more than once had valiant times, was in the centre of peasants' revolts, revolts of non Russian population, in 1654-1657 there was plague, in 1672 and 1684 the whole quarters and streets were burnt down. However by the end of that century Kazan not only restored all destroyed, but became even better, turned to a large military administrative centre of Russia, and since 1708 headed the Kazan province. The shape of city began to change, now Kazan not only the centre of province, but "East capital", one of the biggest cities of Russia.
In 1708 Kazan becomes a governed center when Peter the Great institutes a political reform. Opening of first provincial school for children of nobility. Muslim education system exists despite opposition from Moscow authorities. Two Muslim religious schools opened. A third appeared in 1780. In 1774 Kazan suffers heavy damage during a peasant revolt headed by Don Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev. Following the suppression of the revolt by Catherine the Great, she decrees that mosques may be built in the city. Official discrimination against Tatars, however, continues.
In 70s of 18 century Kazan again appeared in the epicentre of tragically events and big destructions: the bloody chariot of country war under the leadership of Emelyan Pugachev, newly presented as "Emperor Peter III" swept here. Groups of Pugachev occupied the city, but the fortress didn't surrender. But the most part of Kazan then was burnt down. At restoration of the city its building was made for the first time under the general plan authorized by empress Ekaterina II. The city, especially central part, was built up in stone, streets were straightened, the new areas were formed and the whole quarters were erected.