Kazan was noisy, trading city. At Kazan markets it was possible to meet the goods from the entire world: porcelain, faience, crystal, precious fabrics, refined wine and fruit, spices and many other things. In 18 century Kazan got one more important function: educational. At that time in Kazan there were madrasahs (high schools) under construction, where Tatar children were educated. Pupils of grammar school and religious school annually gave theatrical performances for public, and since 1791 in Kazan there was a constant theatre.
During the first half of 19 century the city is finally formed as the industrial, trading and cultural centre not only in the Volga region, but also in Russia. Large industrial enterprises were based here.
In the beginning of XX century brisk construction was conducted: rich private residences of merchants and noblemen, churches and cathedrals, mosques and madrasahs were erected, gardens and squares, on the squares some monuments were established. In the city some Russian theatres worked, including, in summer in gardens and squares, in National theatre, lectures to workers by leading professors of city were read. In the beginning of century the Tatar professional theatre and the first newspapers and magazines in the Tatar language appeared, the Tatar intelligence declared itself.
Between 1918 and 1919 Kazan briefly named capital of the Ideal Ural state during the Russian Civil War. It was also briefly the center of the anti-Bolshevik Bolaq Art Republic. Kazan made administrative center of the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In the following two decades, most of the city's churches and mosques are destroyed. Between 1941 and 1945 during World War II, many factories from the western part of Russia are evacuated to Kazan and the city becomes a major manufacturing center producing tanks and military aircraft.
The Declaration on the state sovereignty of the republic was accepted and signed on August 30, 1990. The referendum carried out in March, 1992 and the new Constitution of Tatarstan accepted on November 6, 1992 established, according to the national will, the new state status of the republic. February 15, 1994 the Contract between the Russian Federation and Tatarstan "About differentiation of subjects and mutual delegation of powers between bodies of the government of the Russian Federation and bodies of the government of Tatarstan" which, alongside with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Constitution of Tatarstan, formed a legal basis of formation of widely-known Russian-Tatarstan model of relations. And in 2000 Kazan embarks on a major urban renovation, including construction of a subway system.
Kazan is one of the most beautiful cities of Russia, reflected in the historical monuments, culture and architecture. Through the prism of history these monuments have brought to us many interesting things from the life of ancient Kazaners. Kazan has gone through many changes. From frontier city it has turned into the capital of the republic, into the cultural centre of the Tatar people, has given us many talented art workers, scientists, politicians.