Murmansk was founded in 1916 with British assistance during the World War I and situated in north-western Russia. With a population of more than one half million inhabitants, it is the largest city within the Artic Circle. It has served as a commercial and naval port, a base for Russia's fishing industry, a shipyard, plus an important center for science including oceanographic and polar institutions.
The city is often called "the Arctic gates", as the city is the starting point of the Northern Sea way and the base of the icebreaking fleet. Although it is a relatively young city, Murmansk has played a significant role in events of the 20th century.