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Ulyanovsk Travel Guide

Ulyanovsk History

In the 8th - 9th centuries the Ulyanovsk Volga region became a part of early the Volga Bulgar State as a union of nomad Turkic and settled Ugro-Finnic tribes. At the end of the 14th - the beginning of the 15th century, after devastating raid of Tamerlan, the ruler of the Central Asia, began desolation of the territory of the Ulyanovsk Volga region.

In 1648, Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich sent boyar Bogdan Matveevich Khitrovo to the downstream cities with orders to defend the Russian borders against the Nogai Tatars and build new cities and frontier fortresses from the Barysh River to the Volga River. Sinbirsk was one of the cities built at the tsar's command. Like many other Volga cities, it was founded on a steep bluff of the Volga named the Crown more than 120 meter high.

In 1670, Stepan Razin's troops besieged Simbirsk but failed to capture it, because the fortress was impregnable. From 1773 to 1774, Emelyan Pugachev was held in custody in Simbirsk fortress.

In 1708, Simbirsk was added to Kazan Province, then to Astrakhan Province in 1717, and again to Kazan Province in 1728. In 1780, the city became the capital of the Simbirsk governorship.

Ulyanovsk History

In 1796, it became the capital of Simbirsk Province. In 1898, the city was connected by rail with Inza, and a few years later, with Bugulma.

In the 19th century, Simbirsk became a trading center for grain, fish, cattle, and timber. In 1924, the city was renamed Ulyanovsk. It became part of Middle Volga Region, in 1928, and then part of Kuibyshev Region in 1936. During the Second World War (1941-1945), a number of factories were evacuated to Ulyanovsk. In 1943, Ulyanovsk became the capital of the newly formed Ulyanovsk Region.

In the 50-s - 60-s in the region were opened new industrial enterprises (the plant of heavy and unique machines, the mechanical plant, Dimitrovgrad scientific research institute of nuclear reactors and others), automobile bridge across the Volga river and the airport in Ulyanovsk.

In the 20th century, the city was built up according to master plans of 1946 and 1965. New residential districts (including districts on the far side of the Volga and Sviyaga rivers) and parks were created, and public buildings, including a river station (1965) and a railway station (1970), were constructed. The central part of Ulyanovsk was reconstructed between 1960 and 1970. A Lenin memorial area was established, which included elements of old Simbirsk and a Lenin memorial center.

The modern city of Ulyanovsk is located on the Volga Uplands on the banks of the Middle Volga and Sviyaga rivers. The finest and most important part of the city is located on the hilly right bank of the Volga at the foot of Simbirsk Hill. The gardens covering the gentle slopes and hills brighten this part of the city in summer and separate it from the main city buildings located on Simbirsk HIll.

By the end of the century, the city had more than 42 factories, 733 stores and 526 small businesses. A trade fair dealing mainly in horses was held annually. There were 29 Orthodox churches, 2 monasteries, Lutheran and Catholic churches, a mosque, and a synagogue. Men's and women's gymnasia, a military school, a seminary, and other educational institutions opened, and many charitable societies and institutions operated in the city.

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