Presently, Yakutsk is an administrative, scientific and cultural center. The city is 8468 km away from Moscow and 826 km from the nearest railroad. The population is over 200,000 people. The primary social unit was the nuclear family. Marriages were usually monogamous, but in the early nineteenth century, polygamy was practiced among the wealthy.
The country is partly mountainous and partly lowland. The northern area is a tundra region. The climate is dry, with long and severe winters. The vegetation consists predominantly of larch, with some birch and pine. The animal life includes squirrel, Siberian ferret, ermine, hare, fox, bear, wolverine, elk, blue fox, wild reindeer, and musk deer. Fish are also abundant. Yakuts were primarily pastoralists, whereas their neighbours were hunters and fishers. Fishing was the second most important economic activity. Hunting was done primarily for furs.
There are about 250 avian species in Yakutsk. The tundra is a habitat for rare birds, sterkh (Siberian white crane), sandhill crane, loon, Ross's goose, golden eagle, white-tailed eagle, etc. The Arctic shore is famous for the noisy and spectacular seashore bird colonies. Yakutia is the only place on the planet with Siberian black crane and Ross's gull habitats.